Despite its tropical origin, the avocado has a wide adaptation due to its genetic diversity, which can be explained, broadly speaking, by its three races: the Antillean, which prefers equatorial areas; the Mexican, which can resist up to -7ºC for a few hours, and the Guatemalan breed, which is intermediate between the two.
The ideal temperature conditions for growing avocado are: daytime temperatures between 20 and 30ºC and night temperatures between 10 and 20ºC. In general, it is advisable to opt for areas free of frost and excessive heat, which can cause serious damage to plantations and productions.
The avocado needs to have good exposure to solar radiation and not be shaded in hedges, which will promote greater flowering, for this reason it is very important to carry out pruning that favors the entry of light into the interior of the trees.
Regarding relative humidity, the ideal requirements range between 75-80%. Excess humidity can cause the appearance of fungal diseases, while a dry environment causes the death of pollen, with negative effects on fertilization.
Precipitation in the original areas of avocado ranges between 1,000 and 2,000 mm. throughout the year. However, in the Axarquía area they vary between 300 and 500 mm, which entails the need to support localized irrigation to maintain a healthy and productive grove. Prolonged droughts cause widespread leaf fall in the grove and reduce the yield of the plantations considerably, leading to the trees dying if the necessary irrigation is not carried out.
The crop is also sensitive to strong winds that inhibit pollination and fruiting, causing severe damage and the fall of branches, flowers and fruits. The land intended for growing avocado must be protected from the wind or, failing that, establish windbreaks.
As for soil, avocado cultivation adapts to a wide range of structures, from sandy to clay, the latter as long as they have good internal drainage. It is important that they have at least 1 m of soil, since the roots of the avocado do not go very deep and do not need much more soil.
The ideal conditions are those with medium textures (loamy soils) with neutral or slightly acidic pH, to facilitate the absorption of the main nutrients.
Salsa Agrícola’s avocado farms have a privileged location for cultivation, since Axarquía is one of the places with a tropical microclimate on the Eastern Costa del Sol, which allows us to be one of the main avocado producers in the zone.
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